In this work, we developed printed ITO thin-film transistors (TFTs) with a modified coffee-ring structure, exhibiting outstanding electrical performance, with a high device yield of 98%, high saturation mobility (µsat) of 22.6 ± 5.6 cm2 V−1 s−1, low subthreshold swing (SS) of 93.5 ± 7.5 mV dec−1, threshold voltage (Vth) of 1.10 ± 0.06 V, and high current on/off ratio (Ion/off) of (1.6 ± 0.5) × 107. These transistors also exhibit several important optoelectronic synaptic properties with a low operating voltage of 10 mV and low energy consumption of ≈1.6 pJ.

A synaptic memtransistor with highly linear and symmetric synaptic weight update characteristics is achieved, based on the polarization switching in two-dimensional ferroelectric semiconductor of α-In2Se3. The α-In2Se3 memtransistor-type synapse shows high accuracy of 97.76% for digit patterns recognition task in simulated artificial neural networks, promising for high-performance neuromorphic computing.

In this letter, we achieve bidirectional photoresponse in the inorganic-organic semiconductors hybrid phototransistors (HPTs) by introducing Schottky contact at metal-semiconductor interfaces. The Schottky contact enables the HPTs with distinguishable positive and negative photoresponses with ultraviolet and near-infrared light, respectively, capable of differentiating incident light wavelengths.

High-performance inorganic–organic hybrid phototransistor arrays are achieved for NIR sensing, by taking advantage of the high electron mobility of In2O3 and the strong NIR absorption of a BTPV-4F:PTB7-Th bulk heterojunction (BHJ) with an enhanced photogating effect. An integrated 16 × 16 phototransistor array with a one-transistor–one-phototransistor (1T1PT) architecture is demonstrated, which can not only achieve real-time, dynamic NIR light mapping but also implement image preprocessing, which is promising for advanced NIR image sensors.

A perovskite sensitizer is vertically stacked onto an indium oxide transistor with lateral transport geometry. Detectors are insensitive to the ionic motion of perovskite, hence demonstrating no hysteresis and almost no shifting of baseline that are often observed in photoconductors. Detectors also exhibit reduced dark current, improved response time, and four times higher photocurrent signals.

High deep-ultraviolet (DUV) sensitivity and excellent flexibility of ultrathin gallium oxide (Ga2O3) film with ultrawide bandgap endow its extreme propensity in flexible DUV photodetector. The flexible and heat-resistant Ga2O3 DUV photodetectors based on high-throughput low-cost inkjet printing have been demonstrated to provide a feasible strategy for harsh-environment space exploration and wearable electronics.

In this work, we provide a powerful yet simple patterning technique for fabricating low-temperature thin-film electronics and optoelectronics, which is expected to be a versatile and extensible approach for solution-processed nanocrystal-based thin-film device manufacturing.

A fully printed, high-performance optoelectronic synaptic transistor based on hybrid heterostructures of heavy-metal-free InP/ZnSe core/shell quantum dots (QDs) and n-type SnO2 amorphous oxide semiconductors (AOSs) is achieved. Combining the outstanding synaptic characteristics of both AOS materials and heterojunction structures, this work provides a printable, low-cost, and high-efficiency strategy to achieve advanced optoelectronic synapses for neuromorphic electronics and artificial intelligence.

Optoelectronic synaptic transistors with tunable plasticity are achieved by utilizing printed indium tin oxide (ITO) channel and Ag/ITO dual-layer contact electrodes. The Ag/ITO dual-layer electrodes not only provide ITO TFTs with high electrical performance but enabled them with tunable plasticity.

A volatile threshold switching (TS) memristor based on silk biomaterials is achieved, which can function as both artificial synapses and leaky integrate-and-fire artificial neurons, promising for future bio-integrated low-power neuromorphic electronics.

Biocompatible tetrapeptide tryptophan-valine-phenylalanine-tyrosine (WVFY) nanostructures were self-assembled on flexible transistors for real-time detection of tyrosinase. The tyrosinase-sensing bio-FETs showed an ultra-low detection limit of 1.9 fM with a detection range from 10 fM to 1 nM, promising for melanoma screening.


Journal of Materials Chemistry C 2021 Emerging Investigators Themed Issue

Back Cover


Nanoscale 2021 Emerging Investigators Themed Issue

Prior to Westlake

  1. Ling, Y.; An, T.; Yap, L. W.; Zhu, B.; Gong, S.; Cheng, W., Disruptive, Soft, Wearable Sensors. Advanced Materials 2020, 32 (18), 1904664.
  2. Gong, S.; Yap, L. W.; Zhu, Y.; Zhu, B.; Wang, Y.; Ling, Y.; Zhao, Y.; An, T.; Lu, Y.; Cheng, W., A Soft Resistive Acoustic Sensor Based on Suspended Standing Nanowire Membranes with Point Crack Design. Advanced Functional Materials 2020, 30 (25), 1910717.
  3. Ling, Y.; Lyu, Q.; Zhai, Q.; Zhu, B.; Gong, S.; Zhang, T.; Dyson, J.; Cheng, W., Design of Stretchable Holey Gold Biosensing Electrode for Real-Time Cell Monitoring. ACS Sensors 2020, 5 (10), 3165-3171.
  4. Cheung, K. M.; Abendroth, J. M.; Nakatsuka, N.; Zhu, B.; Yang, Y.; Andrews, A. M.; Weiss, P. S., Detecting DNA and RNA and Differentiating Single-Nucleotide Variations via Field-Effect Transistors. Nano Letters 2020, 20 (8), 5982-5990.
  5. Bae, S.-H.; Kim, D.; Chang, S.-Y.; Hur, J.; Kim, H.; Lee, J.-W.; Zhu, B.; Han, T.-H.; Choi, C.; Huffaker, D. L.; Di Carlo, D.; Yang, Y.; Rim, Y. S., Hybrid Integrated Photomedical Devices for Wearable Vital Sign Tracking. ACS Sensors 2020, 5 (6), 1582-1588.
  6. Liu, Y.; Fan, B.; Shi, Q.; Dong, D.; Gong, S.; Zhu, B.; Fu, R.; Thang, S. H.; Cheng, W., Covalent-Cross-Linked Plasmene Nanosheets. ACS Nano 2019, 13 (6), 6760-6769.
  7. Ling, Y.; Guo, K.; Zhu, B.; Prieto-Simon, B.; Voelcker, N. H.; Cheng, W., High-adhesion vertically aligned gold nanowire stretchable electrodes via a thin-layer soft nailing strategy. Nanoscale Horizons 2019, 4 (6), 1380-1387.
  8. Gong, S.; Yap, L. W.; Zhu, B.; Zhai, Q.; Liu, Y.; Lyu, Q.; Wang, K.; Yang, M.; Ling, Y.; Lai, D. T. H.; Marzbanrad, F.; Cheng, W., Local Crack-Programmed Gold Nanowire Electronic Skin Tattoos for In-Plane Multisensor Integration. Advanced Materials 2019, 31 (41), 1903789.
  9. Gong, S.; Yap, L. W.; Zhu, B.; Cheng, W., Multiscale Soft–Hard Interface Design for Flexible Hybrid Electronics. Advanced Materials 2019, 31, 1902278.
  10. An, T.; Zhu, B.; Ling, Y.; Gong, S.; Cheng, W., Janus Gold Nanowire Electrode for Stretchable Micro-Supercapacitors with Discriminative Capacitances. Journal of Materials Chemistry A 2019, 7, 14233-14238.
  11. Zhu, B.; Ling, Y.; Yap, L.W.; Yang, M.; Lin, F.; Gong, S.; Wang, Y.; An, T.; Zhao, Y.; Cheng, W., Hierarchically Structured Vertical Gold Nanowire Arrays based Wearable Pressure Sensors for Wireless Health Monitoring. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2019, 11, (32), 29014-29021.
  12. Zhu, B.; Gong, S.; Lin, F.; Wang, Y.; Ling, Y.; An, T.; Cheng, W., Patterning Vertically-Grown Gold Nanowire Electrodes for Intrinsically Stretchable Organic Transistors. Advanced Electronic Materials 2019, 5, 1800509.
  13. Zhu, B.; Gong, S.; Cheng, W., Softening Gold for Elastronics. Chemical Society Reviews 2019, 48, 1668-1711.
  14. Zhao, X.; Liu, S.; Zhang, H.; Chang, S.-Y.; Huang, W.; Zhu, B.; Shen, Y.; Shen, C.; Wang, D.; Yang, Y.; Wang, M., 20% Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells with 2D Electron Transporting Layer. Advanced Functional Materials 2019, 29 (4), 1805168.
  15. Shai, X.; Wang, J.; Sun, P.; Huang, W.; Liao, P.; Cheng, F.; Zhu, B.; Chang, S. Y.; Yao, E. P.; Shen, Y.; Miao, L.; Yang, Y.; Wang, M., Achieving Ordered and Stable Binary Metal Perovskite via Strain Engineering. Nano Energy 2018, 48, 117-127.
  16. Nakatsuka, N.; Yang, K.-A.; Abendroth, J. M.; Cheung, K.; Xu, X.; Yang, H.; Zhao, C.; Zhu, B.; Rim, Y. S.; Yang, Y.; Weiss, P. S.; Stojanović, M. N.; Andrews, A. M., Aptamer-Field-Effect Transistors Overcome Debye Length Limitations for Small-Molecule Sensing. Science 2018, 362 (6412), 319-324.
  17. Huang, W.; Chang, S.-Y.; Cheng, P.; Meng, D.; Zhu, B.; Nuryyeva, S.; Zhu, C.; Huo, L.; Wang, Z.; Wang, M.; Yang, Y., High Efficiency Non-fullerene Organic Tandem Photovoltaics Based on Ternary Blend Subcells. Nano Letters 2018, 18 (12), 7977-7984.
  18. Liu, Z.; Qi, D.; Leow, W. R.; Yu, J.; Xiloyannnis, M.; Cappello, L.; Liu, Y.; Zhu, B.; Jiang, Y.; Chen, G.; Masia, L.; Liedberg, B.; Chen, X., 3D-Structured Stretchable Strain Sensors for Out-of-Plane Force Detection. Advanced Materials 2018, 30 (26), 1707285.
  19. Huang, W.; Zhu, B.; Chang, S.-Y.; Zhu, S.; Cheng, P.; Hsieh, Y.-T.; Meng, L.; Wang, R.; Wang, C.; Zhu, C.; McNeill, C.; Wang, M.; Yang, Y., High Mobility Indium Oxide Electron Transport Layer for an Efficient Charge Extraction and Optimized Nanomorphology in Organic Photovoltaics. Nano Letters 2018, 18 (9), 5805-5811.
  20. Yadian, B.; Rao, Y.; Zhu, B.; Liu, Z.; Liu, Q.; Gan, C. L.; Chen, X.; Huang, Y., Metal-Sulfide-Decorated ZnO/Si Nano-Heterostructure Arrays with Enhanced Photoelectrochemical Performance. Materials Research Bulletin 2017, 96, 503-508.
  21. Rim, Y. S.; Chen, H.; Zhu, B.; Bae, S. H.; Zhu, S.; Li, P. J.; Wang, I. C.; Yang, Y., Interface Engineering of Metal Oxide Semiconductors for Biosensing Applications. Advanced Materials Interfaces 2017, 4 (10), 1700020.
  22. Liu, Y.; Liu, Z.; Zhu, B.; Yu, J.; He, K.; Leow, W. R.; Wang, M.; Chandran, B. K.; Qi, D.; Wang, H.; Chen, G.; Xu, C.; Chen, X., Stretchable Motion Memory Devices Based on Mechanical Hybrid Materials. Advanced Materials 2017, 29 (34), 1701780.
  23. Chen, H.; Rim, Y. S.; Wang, I. C.; Li, C.; Zhu, B.; Sun, M.; Goorsky, M. S.; He, X.; Yang, Y., Quasi-Two-Dimensional Metal Oxide Semiconductors Based Ultrasensitive Potentiometric Biosensors. ACS Nano 2017, 11 (5), 4710-4718.
  24. Zhu, B.; Wang, H.; Liu, Y.; Qi, D.; Liu, Z.; Wang, H.; Yu, J.; Sherburne, M.; Wang, Z.; Chen, X., Skin-Inspired Haptic Memory Arrays with an Electrically Reconfigurable Architecture. Advanced Materials 2016, 28 (8), 1559-1566.
  25. Zhu, B.; Wang, H.; Leow, W. R.; Cai, Y.; Loh, X. J.; Han, M. Y.; Chen, X., Silk Fibroin for Flexible Electronic Devices. Advanced Materials 2016, 28 (22), 4250-4265.
  26. Wang, H.; Zhu, B.; Wang, H.; Ma, X.; Hao, Y.; Chen, X., Ultra-Lightweight Resistive Switching Memory Devices Based on Silk Fibroin. Small 2016, 12 (25), 3360-3365.
  27. Wang, H.; Zhu, B.; Ma, X.; Hao, Y.; Chen, X., Physically Transient Resistive Switching Memory Based on Silk Protein. Small 2016, 12 (20), 2715-2719.
  28. Wang, H.; Li, F.; Zhu, B.; Guo, L.; Yang, Y.; Hao, R.; Wang, H.; Liu, Y.; Wang, W.; Guo, X.; Chen, X., Flexible Integrated Electrical Cables Based on Biocomposites for Synchronous Energy Transmission and Storage. Advanced Functional Materials 2016, 26 (20), 3472-3479.
  29. Liu, Y.; Wang, H.; Shi, W.; Zhang, W.; Yu, J.; Chandran, B. K.; Cui, C.; Zhu, B.; Liu, Z.; Li, B.; Xu, C.; Xu, Z.; Li, S.; Huang, W.; Huo, F.; Chen, X., Alcohol-Mediated Resistance-Switching Behavior in Metal-Organic Framework-Based Electronic Devices. Angewandte Chemie – International Edition 2016, 55 (31), 8884-8888.
  30. Li, Y.; Wei, X.; Zhu, B.; Wang, H.; Tang, Y.; Sum, T. C.; Chen, X., Hierarchically Branched Fe2O3@TiO2 Nanorod Arrays for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting: Facile Synthesis and Enhanced Photoelectrochemical Performance. Nanoscale 2016, 8 (21), 11284-11290.
  31. Ding, R.; Liu, H.; Zhang, X.; Xiao, J.; Kishor, R.; Sun, H.; Zhu, B.; Chen, G.; Gao, F.; Feng, X.; Chen, J.; Chen, X.; Sun, X.; Zheng, Y., Flexible Piezoelectric Nanocomposite Generators Based on Formamidinium Lead Halide Perovskite Nanoparticles. Advanced Functional Materials 2016, 26 (42), 7708-7716.
  32. Wang, H.; Meng, F.; Zhu, B.; Leow, W. R.; Liu, Y.; Chen, X., Resistive Switching Memory Devices Based on Proteins. Advanced Materials 2015, 27 (46), 7670-7676.
  33. Wang, H.; Du, Y.; Li, Y.; Zhu, B.; Leow, W. R.; Li, Y.; Pan, J.; Wu, T.; Chen, X., Configurable Resistive Switching between Memory and Threshold Characteristics for Protein-Based Devices. Advanced Functional Materials 2015, 25 (25), 3825-3831.
  34. Qi, D.; Liu, Z.; Liu, Y.; Leow, W. R.; Zhu, B.; Yang, H.; Yu, J.; Wang, W.; Wang, H.; Yin, S.; Chen, X., Suspended Wavy Graphene Microribbons for Highly Stretchable Microsupercapacitors. Advanced Materials 2015, 27 (37), 5559-5566.
  35. Liu, Z.; Qi, D.; Guo, P.; Liu, Y.; Zhu, B.; Yang, H.; Liu, Y.; Li, B.; Zhang, C.; Yu, J.; Liedberg, B.; Chen, X., Thickness-Gradient Films for High Gauge Factor Stretchable Strain Sensors. Advanced Materials 2015, 27 (40), 6230-6237.
  36. Du, J.; Zhu, B.; Leow, W. R.; Chen, S.; Sum, T. C.; Peng, X.; Chen, X., Colorimetric Detection of Creatinine Based on Plasmonic Nanoparticles via Synergistic Coordination Chemistry. Small 2015, 11 (33), 4104-4110.
  37. Zhu, B.; Niu, Z.; Wang, H.; Leow, W. R.; Wang, H.; Li, Y.; Zheng, L.; Wei, J.; Huo, F.; Chen, X., Microstructured Graphene Arrays for Highly Sensitive Flexible Tactile Sensors. Small 2014, 10 (18), 3625-3631.
  38. Wang, X.; Liow, C.; Qi, D.; Zhu, B.; Leow, W. R.; Wang, H.; Xue, C.; Chen, X.; Li, S., Programmable Photo-Electrochemical Hydrogen Evolution Based on Multi-Segmented CdS-Au Nanorod Arrays. Advanced Materials 2014, 26 (21), 3506-3512.
  39. Wang, H.; Zhu, B.; Jiang, W.; Yang, Y.; Leow, W. R.; Wang, H.; Chen, X., A Mechanically and Electrically Self-Healing Supercapacitor. Advanced Materials 2014, 26 (22), 3638-3643.
  40. Li, Y. Q.; Zhu, B.; Li, Y.; Leow, W. R.; Goh, R.; Ma, B.; Fong, E.; Tang, M.; Chen, X., A Synergistic Capture Strategy for Enhanced Detection and Elimination of Bacteria. Angewandte Chemie – International Edition 2014, 53 (23), 5837-5841.
  41. Li, Y.; Wang, W.; Leow, W. R.; Zhu, B.; Meng, F.; Zheng, L.; Zhu, J.; Chen, X., Optoelectronics of Organic Nanofibers Formed by Co-Assembly of Porphyrin and Perylenediimide. Small 2014, 10 (14), 2776-2781.
  42. Du, J.; Zhu, B.; Peng, X.; Chen, X., Optical Reading of Contaminants in Aqueous Media Based on Gold Nanoparticles. Small 2014, 10 (17), 3461-3479.
  43. Niu, Z.; Zhang, L.; Liu, L.; Zhu, B.; Dong, H.; Chen, X., All-Solid-State Flexible Ultrathin Micro-Supercapacitors Based on Graphene. Advanced Materials 2013, 25 (29), 4035-4042.
  44. Niu, Z.; Dong, H.; Zhu, B.; Li, J.; Hng, H. H.; Zhou, W.; Chen, X.; Xie, S., Highly Stretchable, Integrated Supercapacitors Based on Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Films with Continuous Reticulate Architecture. Advanced Materials 2013, 25 (7), 1058-1064.
  45. Du, J.; Zhu, B.; Chen, X., Urine for Plasmonic Nanoparticle-Based Colorimetric Detection of Mercury Ion. Small 2013, 9 (24), 4104-4111.
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